Tornadoes



Enhanced Fujita Scale

Scale Estimated Wind Speed Relative Frequency Examples Potential Damage
mph km/h m/s %
EF0 65-85 105-137 29-37 56.88 Benbrook (2016) Minor or No Damage
  • Peels surface off some roofs
  • Some damage to gutters and siding
  • Confirmed tornadoes with no reported damage
  • Those that remain in open fields are always rated EF0
Weak
EF1 68-100 138-177 38-49 31.07 Waverly (2016) Moderate Damage
  • Roofs severely stripped
  • Mobile homes overturned or badly damaged
  • Loss of exterior doors
  • Windows and other glass broken
EF2 111-135 178-217 50-60 8.80 Oxford (2016) Considerable Damage
  • Roofs torn off well-constructed houses
  • Foundations of frame homes shifted
  • Mobile homes completely destroyed
  • Large trees snapped or uprooted
  • Light-object missiles generated
  • Cars lifted off ground
Strong
Significant
EF3 136-165 218-266 61-73 2.51 Mayfield (2016) Severe Damage
  • Entire stories of well-constructed houses destroyed
  • Severe damage to large buildings such as shopping malls
  • Trains overturned
  • Trees debarked
  • Heavy cars lifted off the ground and thrown
  • Structures with weak foundations are badly damaged
Intense
EF4 166-200 267-322 74-90 0.66 Abeline (2016) Extreme Damage
  • Well-constructed and whole frame houses completely leveled
  • Cars and other large objects thrown
  • Small missiles generated
Violent
EF5 > 200 > 322 > 90 0.08 Joplin (2011) Total Destruction
  • Strong framed, well built houses leveled off foundations and swept away
  • Steel-reinforced concrete structures are critically damaged
  • Tall buildings collapse or have severe structural deformations
  • Some cars, trucks and train cars can be thrown approximately 1 mile (1.6 kilometres)

Fujita Scale

Scale Estimated Wind Speed Relative Frequency Average Damage Path Width Potential Damage
mph km/h % in m
F0 40-72 64-116 38.9 33-164 10-50 Light Damage
  • Some damage to chimneys
  • Branches broken off trees
  • Shallow-rooted trees pushed over
  • Sign boards damaged
Weak
F1 73-112 117-180 35.6 98-492 30-150 Moderate Damage
  • The lower limit is the beginning of hurricane wind speed
  • Peels surface off roofs
  • Mobile homes pushed off foundations or overturned
  • Moving autos pushed off the roads
  • Attached garages may be destroyed
F2 113-157 181-253 19.4 360-820 110-250 Significant Damage
  • Roofs torn off frame houses
  • Mobile homes demolished
  • Boxcars overturned
  • Large trees snapped or uprooted
  • Highrise windows broken and blown in
  • Light-object missiles generated
Strong
Significant
F3 158-206 254-332 4.9 660-1640 200-500 Severe Damage
  • Roofs and some walls torn off well-constructed houses
  • Trains overturned
  • Most trees in forest uprooted
  • Heavy cars lifted off the ground and thrown
Intense
F4 207-260 333-418 1.1 1300-3000 400-900 Devastating damage
  • Well-constructed houses leveled
  • Structures with weak foundations blown away some distance
  • Cars thrown and large missiles generated
Violent
F5 261-318 419-512 < 0.1 3600 1100 Incredible Damage
  • Strong frame houses lifted off foundations and carried considerable distances to disintegrate
  • Automobile sized missiles fly through the air farther than 100 metres (330 ft)
  • Trees debarked
  • Steel reinforced concrete structures badly damaged


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